account period concept: Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Generally Accepted Accounting Principles Definition



For example, two account period conceptants may choose two equally correct methods for recording a particular transaction based on their own professional judgement and knowledge. Recording every financial transaction is important to a business organisation and its creditors and investors. Accounting uses a formalised and regulated system that follows standardised principles and procedures. The financial statements report on five main aspects of a business.

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Business Entity Concept:

Accountants record events that affect the wealth of a specific entity. 4.) Facilitating meaningful comparison of financial statements of two or more entities. Facilitating meaningful comparison of financial statements of two or more entities. Your account will automatically be charged on a monthly basis until you cancel.

  • The worldview of accounting and accountants may certainly involve some unhelpful characters poring over formidable figures stacked up in indecipherable columns.
  • This is why, it is important to maintain strict records of the inflows as well as the outflows.
  • A bookkeeper or accountant might do it in a small business or by dozens of people in a large organization’s finance department.
  • Typically, a business would realize revenues at the time of selling goods or rendering of services.

However, there should be a proper understanding regarding two more concepts here. The other concept is ACCRUAL CONCEPT. As per this concept, the expenditure income whether paid or not and income earned whether received or not, should be recorded. The accounting policy follows the general principles of accounting to provide consistency and discretion in accounting for financial services and reporting in the financial statements. It is important that you get to the Test Sheet immediately, the Balance Sheet and the Profit and Loss Account statement without any hassle. Modern accounting software makes this an easy task by accepting and reporting a basic accounting policy based on its accounting principles, concepts and principles.

Income Statement

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles is described by management theorists as the standard framework of guiding principle for financial accounting used in any given authority. GAAP is a codification of how CPA firms and company plan and present their business income and expenditure, assets and liabilities in their financial statements. GAAP is not considered as a sole accounting law, but it is a collective of many rules on how to account for different transactions. The balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement summarise all financial transactions that occurred within a specific accounting period. The process of preparing interim and annual financial statements is called financial accounting. Most businesses have their annual financial accounts audited by an independent CPA firm.

This accounting period is chosen based on the business needs and conditions, which may be too complicated to warrant other accounting periods. As a result, all businesses are free to define as many periods as they need as long as they comply with the law. Further more the financial statements are prepared on the assumption based on the business which continues to operate in the future.

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Typically, a business would realize revenues at the time of selling goods or rendering of services. This means that a business would realize revenues only when the legal right to receive such revenues arise. So, to take important financial decisions, a business owner needs to maintain proper financial statements.

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A journal of accounts is a complete record of how a business handles its money. It is also called the book of original entry because it is the first place where transactions are written down. Your accounting department needs to be good at and do seven very important things. Accounts receivable and payable, payroll, inventory management, budgeting, reports and financial statements, legal compliance and financial control, and keeping records. Modern financial markets are based on the work of accountants.


It is necessary that the financial statements of various enterprises are prepared on a uniform basis so that they can be understood by all. This is possible only when certain principles are followed on a uniform basis while preparing them. Check out Taxmann’s Accounting for Everyone | GE-4 | UGCF which is a comprehensive, authentic textbook on ‘Accounting for Everyone’. It will enable non-commerce students & other learners to analyze various terms used in accounting and information from the company’s annual reports.

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The accrual method of accounting necessitates the creation of an accounting entry whenever an economic event occurs, regardless of when the monetary part of the event occurs. In the internal system, the accounting period is considered to be a month or for a quarter while externally the accounting period is for a period of twelve months. The International Financial Reporting Standards allows a 52-week period which is known as the fiscal year, instead of a full year, as the accounting period. Another point is to be noted that the cost concept does not mean that the asset will always be shown at cost price. The concept of separate entity applies to all forms of business organization, whether it is a sole trade, partnership or a company.

In case of gold mining revenue is recognised at the point of production itself. Fixed assets are not shown at their liquidation value in the Balance Sheet. Cost of the depreciable assets is allocated over the useful life of the asset in a systematic manner. Distinction between capital expenditure and revenue expenditure is made. The government, which decides how much tax should be collected from the company.

They the aspects of recognition, measurement, treatment, presentation and disclosure of accounting transaction and disclosure of accounting transactions in the financial statements. They are applicable either to all or certain types of accounting entities. Accounting concepts are the basic assumptions or principles on the basis of which transactions are recorded and financial statements are prepared. There are two main accounting techniques that you can utilize cash basis and accrual basis accounting. Many small businesses begin out with cash basis accounting, but accrual basis financial statements give you a much-improved understanding of your business’s financial place than cash-basis statements.

In most of the businesses, the accounting year or fiscal year corresponds to the calendar year. But there are many businesses use the natural business year instead of the calendar year. In theory, an entity wants its growth to be consistent throughout accounting periods in order to show stability and a long-term profit projection.

How can I study the Accounting Period Concept and its types?

If you are a commerce student then it becomes very much important for you to understand the concepts related to the accounting period. To study the accounting period concept, you can refer to the above article as you will get all the details that are related to this topic. You can also search ‘accounting period concept’ on the website of Vedantu as you will get all the reliable resources relevant to this topic.

Most people evaluating a company will do so by studying the financial statements over a few accounting periods. According to the matching principle, financial data recorded in a single accounting period should be as full as feasible, and no financial data should be dispersed across numerous accounting periods. Accounting periods are defined for the purpose of reporting and analysis. If an accountant prepares financial statements on a monthly basis, for example, they must do it for every month of the calendar year.

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The accrual method of accounting is the accounting approach that supports this premise. The objective of such a time period is to allow financial statements to be created and presented to investors, as well as to compare business performance over time. The calculation of the accounting period is important as this forms the base for the investors to invest in a particular business. The concept is necessary as this will help the investors to analyze the financial performance of the business based on the financial report of a fixed accounting period.

objectivity and feasibility

To recognize this point, you first require understanding the three financial statements significant for a company balance sheet, profit and loss statement and account of cash flows. According to money measurement principle only those transactions are recorded as the books of accounts which can be measured in term of money. Money is the common denominator in recording and reporting all transactions. IN other words, non- financial transactions or facts, like the efficiency of the management will never be recorded in the books of accounts.

This concept stresses that the expenses relating to a particular income must be recorded in the same period. Accounting is based on a place of rules identified as the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. These rules are intended to adjust accounting and make most accounting tasks familiar. It means that if you generate a report, any accountant in the world should appreciate the accounting concepts used to feature the numbers within your declaration.

How will the Accounting Period Concept help me?

The Accounting Period Concept is an important tool for you if you run any kind of business as you can use it as a reference point. It will give you an idea of whether your business is in profit or loss and you can then act accordingly. You can figure out what needs to be done in the next accounting period by assessing the information of the previous accounting period. If your business is at loss, you can implement new ways so that it becomes profitable. Similarly, if your business is already in profit, you can draft plans to ensure that it keeps on being profitable.

Begins when the are balanced, and the accounting department prepares the annual financial statements. It aids in the preparation of financial statements that indicate the financial situation of a company over a set period of time. The accounting period chosen is determined by the needs and circumstances of the firm, which may be complicated enough to warrant various accounting periods. As long as legal requirements are met, all businesses are free to define as many periods as they choose. For business owners, investors, creditors, and government authorities, this information is critical. The time period assumption provides stakeholders with accurate and timely financial data, allowing them to make informed business decisions.

method of accounting

The capital expenses, however, are written off over their useful life as depreciation or amortization. Operating expenses are those that provide benefits only during the current period. Financing expenses refer to expenses relating to non-equity financing used to raise capital for the business.

The financial accounting principles are man made and they are used as a guide to action. They are the result of broad consensus and, therefore, known as Generally Accepted Accounting Principles . The term Generally Accepted Accounting Principles is used to describe rules adopted for recording of transactions and preparation and presentation of the financial statements at a particular time. The periodicity concept states that an organization can report its financial statements within certain selected periods of time. It means that an entity consistently reports its results in financial statements on a monthly, quarterly, or annual basis.